Cisco lan switching pdf

 
    Contents
  1. PDF Download Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals (Cisco Press Fundamentals Series) PDF Online
  2. Cisco® LAN Switching - PDF Free Download
  3. Cisco® LAN Switching
  4. Cisco® LAN Switching

CCIE Professional Development: Cisco LAN Switching is essential for preparation for the CCIE Routing and Switching exam track. As well as CCIE preparation. Cisco LAN Switching (CCIE Professional Development series) · Read more Cisco LAN Switching Configuration Handbook, Second Edition · Read more. The essential guide for understanding Ethernet switched networks Understand various Ethernet technologies from 10BASE-T to Gigabit Ethernet Learn about.

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Cisco Lan Switching Pdf

Parkhurst Cisco Multicast Routing and Switching .. We have seen Ethernet become the dominant local-area networking (LAN) medium. With the. The most complete guide to Cisco Catalyst(r) switch network design, operation, and configuration Master key foundation topics such as. Cisco Press CCIE Routing and Switching v Official Cert Guide Vol. 1 5th Cisco LAN Switching Configuration Handbook, Second Edition.

This section describes its characteristics and some of the common media options. This section describes media options and characteristics. This section provides a brief overview of Token Ring. Since the inception of local-area networks LANs in the s, numerous LAN technologies graced the planet at one point or another. ArcNet was the basis for some of the earliest office networks in the s, because Radio Shack sold it for its personal computer line, Model II. A simple coaxial-based network, it was easy to deploy by office administrators for a few workstations. With the higher bandwidth capacity of newer network technologies and the rapid development of higher speed workstations demanding more network bandwidth, ArcNet now fondly referred to as ArchaicNet and StarLAN were doomed to limited market presence. The legacy networks continue to find utility as distribution and backbone technologies for both manufacturing and office environments. However, the legacy systems will remain for many more years due to the existence of such a large installed base. Users will replace Ethernet and Token Ring in phases as applications demand more bandwidth. Although Gigabit Ethernet is not yet a popular desktop technology, it is discussed here because of its relationship to Ethernet and its use in Catalyst networks for trunking Catalysts together. This chapter also describes how the access methods operate, some of the physical characteristics of each, and various frame formats and address types. Each wire connection was dedicated to an individual terminal. Users entered data, and the terminal immediately transmitted signals to the host.

Each wire connection was dedicated to an individual terminal. Users entered data, and the terminal immediately transmitted signals to the host. Performance was driven by the horsepower in the hosts. If the host became overworked, users experienced delays in responses. Note, though, that the connection between the host and terminal was not the cause in the delay.

The users had full media bandwidth on the link regardless of the workload of the host device. Facility managers installing the connections between the terminal and the host experienced distance c onstraints imposed by the host's terminal line technology. The technology limited users to locations that were a relatively short radius from the host.

Further, labor to install the cables created inflated installation and maintenance expenses. Local-area networks LANs mitigated these issues to a large degree. One of the immediate benefits of a LAN was to reduce the installation and maintenance costs by eliminating the need to install dedicated wires to each user.

Instead, a single cable pulled from user to user allowed users to share a common infrastructure instead of having dedicated infrastructures for each station. A technology problem arises when users share a cable, though.

Specifically, how does the network control who uses the cable and when? Broadband technologies like cable television CATV support multiple users by multiplexing data on different channels frequencies. For example, think of each video signal on a CATV system as a data stream. Each data stream is transported over its own channel. A CATV system carries multiple channels on a single cable and can, therefore, carry multiple data streams concurrently.

This is an example of frequency-division multiplexing FDM. The initial LANs were conceived as baseband technologies, however, which do not have multiple channels. Baseband technologies do not transmit using FDM. Rather, they use bandwidth-sharing, which simply means that users take turns transmitting. Ethernet and Token Ring define sets of rules known as access methodsfor sharing the cable. The access methods approach media sharing differently, but have essentially the same end goal in mind.

In a meeting, all individuals have the right to speak. The unspoken rule that all follows, though, is "Only one person can talk at a time. If someone is already speaking, you must wait until they are finished. When you start to speak, you need to continue to listen in case someone else decides to speak at the same time. If this happens, both parties must stop talking and wait a random amount of time. Only then do they have the right to start the process again.

If individuals fail to observe the protocol of only one speaker at a time, the meeting quickly degenerates and no effective communication occurs. Unfortunately, this happens all too often. No station has any priority over any other station. However, they do need to take turns per the access algorithm.

Carrier sense refers to the process of listening before speaking. The Ethernet device wishing to communicate looks for energy on the media an electrical carrier. If a carrier exists, the cable is in use and the device must wait to transmit. Many Ethernet devices maintain a counter of how often they need to wait before they can transmit.

Some devices call the counter a deferral or back-off counter. If the deferral counter exceeds a threshold value of 15 retries, the device attempting to transmit assumes that it will never get access to the cable to transmit the packet. In this situation, the source device discards the frame. This might happen if there are too many devices on the network, implying that there is not enough bandwidth available.

When this situation becomes chronic, you should segment the network into smaller segments. Chapter 2, "Segmenting LANs," discusses various approaches to segmentation. If the power level exceeds a certain threshold, that implies to the system that a collision occurred. When stations detect that a collision occurs, the participants generate a collision enforcement signal. The enforcement signal lasts as long as the smallest frame size. In the case of Ethernet, that equates to 64 bytes. This ensures that all stations know about the collision and that no other station attempts to transmit during the collision event.

Each data stream is transported over its own channel. A CATV system carries multiple channels on a single cable and can, therefore, carry multiple data streams concurrently.

This is an example of frequency-division multiplexing FDM. The initial LANs were conceived as baseband technologies, however, which do not have multiple channels. Baseband technologies do not transmit using FDM.

PDF Download Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals (Cisco Press Fundamentals Series) PDF Online

Rather, they use bandwidth-sharing, which simply means that users take turns transmitting. Ethernet and Token Ring define sets of rules known as access methodsfor sharing the cable. The access methods approach media sharing differently, but have essentially the same end goal in mind. In a meeting, all individuals have the right to speak. The unspoken rule that all follows, though, is "Only one person can talk at a time.

If someone is already speaking, you must wait until they are finished. When you start to speak, you need to continue to listen in case someone else decides to speak at the same time.

If this happens, both parties must stop talking and wait a random amount of time. Only then do they have the right to start the process again. If individuals fail to observe the protocol of only one speaker at a time, the meeting quickly degenerates and no effective communication occurs.

Unfortunately, this happens all too often. No station has any priority over any other station. However, they do need to take turns per the access algorithm. Carrier sense refers to the process of listening before speaking.

The Ethernet device wishing to communicate looks for energy on the media an electrical carrier. If a carrier exists, the cable is in use and the device must wait to transmit.

Many Ethernet devices maintain a counter of how often they need to wait before they can transmit. Some devices call the counter a deferral or back-off counter.

Cisco® LAN Switching - PDF Free Download

If the deferral counter exceeds a threshold value of 15 retries, the device attempting to transmit assumes that it will never get access to the cable to transmit the packet. In this situation, the source device discards the frame. This might happen if there are too many devices on the network, implying that there is not enough bandwidth available. When this situation becomes chronic, you should segment the network into smaller segments.

Chapter 2, "Segmenting LANs," discusses various approaches to segmentation. If the power level exceeds a certain threshold, that implies to the system that a collision occurred. When stations detect that a collision occurs, the participants generate a collision enforcement signal. The enforcement signal lasts as long as the smallest frame size. In the case of Ethernet, that equates to 64 bytes.

This ensures that all stations know about the collision and that no other station attempts to transmit during the collision event. If a station experiences too many consecutive collisions, the station stops transmitting the frame. Some workstations display an error message stating Media not available.

The exact message differs from implementation to implementation, but every workstation attempts to convey to the user that it was unable to send data for one reason or another.

Cisco® LAN Switching

Addressing in Ethernet How do stations identify each other? In a meeting, you identify the intended recipient by name. You can choose to address the entire group, a set of individuals, or a specific person.

Speaking to the group equates to a broadcast; a set of individuals is a multicast; and addressing one person by name is a unicast. Most traffic in a network is unicast in nature, characterized as traffic from a specific station to another specific device.

Some applications generate multicast traffic.

Examples include multimedia services over LANs. These applications intend for more than one station to receive the traffic, but not necessarily all for all stations. Video conferencing applications frequently implement multicast addressing to specify a group of recipients. Networking protocols create broadcast traffic, whereas IP creates broadcast packets for ARP and other processes.

Cisco® LAN Switching

Routers often transmit routing updates as broadcast frames, and AppleTalk, DecNet, Novell IPX, and many other protocols create broadcasts for various reasons.

Figure shows a simple legacy Ethernet system with several devices attached. Each device's Ethernet adapter card has a bit 6 octet address built in to the module that uniquely identifies the station. Devices express MAC addresses as hexadecimal values. In the extreme case i. In contrast to an Ethernet hub, there is a separate collision domain on each of the switch ports. This allows computers to have dedicated bandwidth on point-to-point connections to the network and also to run in full-duplex mode.

Full-duplex mode has only one transmitter and one receiver per collision domain, making collisions impossible. The network switch plays an integral role in most modern Ethernet local area networks LANs. Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. In most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology. Role in a network[ edit ] Switches are most commonly used as the network connection point for hosts at the edge of a network.

In the hierarchical internetworking model and similar network architectures, switches are also used deeper in the network to provide connections between the switches at the edge. This connectivity can be at any of the layers mentioned. While the layer-2 functionality is adequate for bandwidth-shifting within one technology, interconnecting technologies such as Ethernet and token ring is performed more easily at layer 3 or via routing.

Some vendors provide firewall , [8] [9] network intrusion detection , [10] and performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports.

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