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Kim, C. Sim, Y. Tjung, and Y. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands electronic publication. Conners, Thomas J. Tengger Javanese. Yale University. In Austronesian Undressed ed. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono. Some aspects of Indonesian and Javanese Linguistics. Davies, William D. Against an ergative analysis of Eastern Javanese. ESCOL , Javanese adversatives, passives and Mapping Theory.
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In Oceanic Linguistics The structure of Javanese and Madurese determiner phrases. Errington, J. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Blackwell Press: London. Ewing, Michael. Grammar and inference in conversation: identifying clause structure in spoken Javanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Hierarchical constituency in conversational language: The case of Cirebon Javanese.
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Thesis, Leiden University. Janse, Mark. In Memoriam, Eugenius Marius Uhlenbeck Kullanda, Sergey. In Lander and Ogloblin, eds. Lander, Yuri and Alexander K. Ogloblin, eds. Miyake, Yoshimi. Reduplication in Javanese. Tokyo, Japan. Nurhayani, Ika. Javanese Applicative Construction. Ogloblin, Alexander K. In Victor S. Xrakovskij, ed. Typology of imperative constructions, pp. Munich: Lincom Europa. In Adelaar and Himmelmann eds. Obloblin, Alexander K.
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Sudiroatmadja, Martin Hardaja. Etymology[ edit ] The origin of the name "Java" can be traced from the Sanskrit chronicle which mentions the existence of an island called yavadvip a dvipa means "island", and yava means " barley " or also " grain ". Yavadvipa is mentioned in one of the Indian epic, Ramayana. According to the epic, Sugriva , the commander of the wanara ape man from Sri Rama 's army, sent his envoy to Yavadvip "Java Island" to look for the Hindu goddess Sita. Iabadiu is said to mean "island of barley", also rich in gold, and has a silver city called Argyra at its western end.
This name mentioned Java, which most likely origins from the Sanskrit term Java-dvipa Yawadvipa. Java Man belongs to the species Homo erectus.
Then about 40, years ago, Australoid peoples related to modern Australian Aboriginals and Melanesians colonised Central Java. They were assimilated or replaced by Mongoloid Austronesians by about BC, who brought with them technologies of pottery, outrigger canoes, the bow and arrow, and introduced domesticated pigs, fowls, and dogs.
They also introduced cultivated rice and millet. Hooijer c. Central Java was a centre of power in Java back then. It used to be considered the Chinese transcription of Kalinga but it now most commonly thought of as a rendering of the name Areng.
This inscription which hailed from Kedu , is written in Sanskrit in Pallava script. In this inscription it is written that a Shaivite king named Sri Sanjaya established a kingdom called Mataram. Under the reign of Sanjaya's dynasty several monuments such as the Prambanan temple complex were built.
In the meantime a competing dynasty arose, which adhered to Buddhism. This was the Sailendra dynasty, also from Kedu, which built the Borobudur temple. This fact coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by the Sanjayas who restored Shaivism as the dominant religion. Then in the middle of the 10th century, for unknown reason, the centre of power moved to Eastern Java.
Raden Wijaya founded the great Hindu Majapahit Empire , and the empire reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk m. The kingdom claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago , although direct control tended to be limited to Java, Bali and Madura. Gajah Mada was a military leader during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who led many territorial conquests for the kingdom. The kingdoms in Java had previously based their power on agriculture, but Majapahit had succeeded in seizing the port and shipping lanes so that it became the first commercial empire on Java.
The empire suffered a setback afterwith the death of Hayam Wuruk and the entry of Islam into Indonesia. At the end of the 16th century , the development of Islam had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in Java.
The emergence of the Islamic kingdom on Java is also inseparable from the role of Walisongo. At first the spread of Islam was very rapid and was accepted by ordinary people, until finally the da'wah entered and was carried out by the rulers of this island.
Recorded the first Islamic kingdom in Java was the Sultanate of Demak. The kingdom of Demak was first led by one of the descendants of the Majapahit emperor converted to Islamic named Raden Patah. In this period, Islamic kingdoms began to develop from Pajang, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Cirebon, and Banten to establish their power.
The Sultanate of Mataram in the late 16th century grew into a dominant force from the central and eastern parts of Java.
The rulers of Surabaya and Cirebon were subdued under the rule of Mataram, so that only Mataram and Banten were left behind when the Dutch arrived in the 17th century. Some kingdoms of Islamic heritage in Java can still be found in several cities, for example Surakarta , there are two kingdoms, Kasunanan and Mangkunegaran , in Yogyakarta there are two kingdoms namely the Yogyakarta Sultanate and Pakualaman.
Dutch colonial rule[ edit ] By late 16th century, European traders began to frequent Central Javanese ports. The Dutch established a presence in the region through their East India Company. After Demak itself collapsed, a new kingdom on the Kedu Plain emerged. This new kingdom , which was also a sultanate , bore the old name of Mataram.
Under the reign of Sultan Agung , Mataram was able to conquer almost all of Java and beyond by the 17th century, but internal disputes and Dutch intrigues forced Mataram to cede more and more land to the Dutch.
These cessions finally led to several partitions of Mataram.